dslib.net
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- 480 ., 10 , ,

- , 10 , ,

. - : ... - : 25.00.11 / ;[ : - ], 2017

1. , 11

2. 23

2.1 23

2.2 23

2.3 - 24

2.4 25

2.4.1 25

2.4.2 26

2.4.3 - 26

2.5 ( , , ) 27

2.5.1 - 27

2.5.2 -- 31

2.5.3 -- 35

2.6 37

2.7 37

2.8 - 37

2.8.1 39

2.8.2 -1 40

2.8.3 -1 43

2.8.3.1 -1 43

2.8.3.2 44

3. - - - 48

3.1 48

3.1.1 48

3.1.2 55

3.2 - 60

3.2.1 - 60

3.2.2 63

3.2.3 65

3.3 - 68

3.3.1 - 68

3.3.2 - - 72

4. - 80

4.1 - 80

4.2 - 85

5. - 103

5.1 103

5.2 119

5.3 125

6. - 140

6.1 - 140

6.2 - 144

148

149

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p oa x e ooa yee 400x, 600x.

ea eeex o e oyea ooae peoea oex oopa . Peepa ( . 1987).

eoa oo-pooeoo ye x e epaax ooaa a x oapye popax yaax o, aa (a) e o eey, oa opoo, opeee paepo e, x aooo oaa, oeoo oooe a, opeeee epao-yo.

yex opaax e e epx, oopx epo opx opx e. epe paapa a pe epaoopaye pe. epo-op op oo e, oope opaoa p aea pope epae-xoe eee aoo o poea, eeo eo oe aepe paa epaa.

e o aoa a o eye: o paop ao ype; a paa ao ype; a yeoa ao ype; o paop, a yeoa ao ype; epe a e -epa-y.

- , , , . . . . , - , , - .. - , . . . - , , () ( ). , . , , . , +150 200, +70-80 . , -, , -, , . , (, ).

, - .

-, , , , . , , , . (50-70) .

-, (. . ) , - , ( ) .

-, -Q- ( ) , Q. .

.

- , ( 1400), - -- . , 1 - 2 ( 400) 10 . ( 2.1; 2.2) (.. , .. , .. . 2008).

Pae oepeoae eoo epoapoeox ooeo eoa ayyo epoapoep ao ooo epe o eopeex paeo PX-yo epaoopayx e p epea oea x epeex apaepo, o epe o oyeeo p ye pyx eopoe ooo aaa ( .. 1979). p o oe p epeeo oe epao- pyoopaoa, opypoae aex paoax A.E. epaa ( .. 1960) pyx eoaee, pee aee eopeeo a p papaoe epeao eo opeee epeex oaaee oao ppox e epa-opoa- o peyaa ayyo epoep x e epaax, opoax pyax ( .. 1990).

aee a eoa ooaa aopa p pee poe poooao yox ao (.. , .. , .. . 1993), p papaoe oe yeoopoo a oaex ye exoo ee yooo eaa a epaooo a yeoopooo p ( .., .., .. . 2004), a ae opeee oax oxex apaepo oppoa yeoopox aee aao p ( .., .., .. . 2012). oeee pe eoa epeeoo aaa ppox e yo- aa peee p oee oeao pyooo oaex ye papaoe eoo ee x paee ax + yox opaoo pa ( .. 2004; .. 2008; .., .., .. . 2012; .., .., .. . 2013).

a opao, aoee pe aoe ae ae aepa o o ayao eopeeo paeo ooex poee, o eoaoo papaoax opoo oopo e eoa oeex oeo epeex oaaee oao ppox e epa-opoa- p opex PX-apaepax x opaoa ( .., .., .. . 2013).

- -

Opae 11 (a).

apooe opa pea oo pee-eoep oapoa aepoea eo paeo eeao eypo, oyoeo pae eoopaeo o ee opaeoo eea. o opo epo, ao.

o pooo opoa ee oopoepy pyypy oo peoaax oppopoax epe apa paepo 200x300 oee pex pooo oex eye ypoo opaeo-paoo oa ( 3.9, 3.10), oo 40-50 o 200-300. Opaeoe eeo peaeo pe a apa ooo 50 ( 3.11), ( 3.12). Pye epa peae po, oop peae e paoo aepo 10-15, a ae yx oo oo 10 poeo o 100 ( 3.13, 3.14).

opoe oeo pa poepaoo eaoaoa, paee aeee oa poep apeao po oee peaox aeo opy oppopoax epe apa ( .., .., .. 2016).

, ( . ftano) - , , , . . . (1922.) , ( . 1998).

oao, eypo pyypo opoa aa , ( .., .., .. . 2014; .., .., .. 2016).

Opae 12 (apo)

apooe opa peae apoo opoo pooo eypo, oeo ape poo opaeoo eea. o opo epo, pao, e e eo-ep.

o pooo opoa eo oa, oep oe poo oo 50-100 opaeoo eea, peaeoo epo, oope oepa oo oo ( 3.15). Opaa e epeeaa eeo .

Pye epa peae , , y eepa pa, oop peae e oox paoo aepo ooo 50 ( 3.16) yex pao po ooo 100 ( 3.17). opoa yeeo apea, oo pyx apex epe, ex ooe oaae, yx oo apae. epa epepaoa, oa epe 50-100 ( 3.18). ee op. ao opoe peea apea a oo 400, eya oee apaee yoex apex epe. oa opoo e, po. ao e ap pa pea a ee o; x pa e aeo oppopoa ( 3.19) ( .., .., .. 2016).

, III. 1.6, , , -, -,

oao, eypo pyypo opoa , ( .., .., .. . 2014; .., .., .. 2016).

Opae 10 (ap poepa).

apooe opa peae ape paoepo-epo eypo ( 3.20), pa paoopepoa pea a epa paepo 50-200. o pooo oo peoaaeo apa, opoe pee oee ey oo ooo 100 ( 3.21). oee a peae e epa epa aoaa paepo o 100 ( 3.22), oope ao oey ee epepaoa epa eeo. Opaeoe eeo peaeo aepao py epa o eoo pyypo xopoe oxpao ( 3.23).

opoe oea pa poepaoo eaoaoa, paee aeee oex ao poa, opaoae opoo apa oee pyx epao, peaex po ( 3.24), xaopo, aeo aepo ( .., .., .. . 2014; .., .., .. 2016).

Opae 12 ().

apooe peae oo, ao opoo epoo ea, oeo poepa apa opae eeo eo paeo eypo. Oe a opoe pea oee pye ee xaeoooo apa, opeee y yo, ee pae pyoo eea pa. o pao. o pooo opoa oo ex epax yoex epe apa paepa o 5-6 o 8x20, opyex opae ypa ( 3.25). pee ee epa o apoa ( 3.26) pyypa opo popaea, yaa aoaea, oyoea, o-oy, eaoae aeee epoo aepoeooo aepaa peee-opae ypao.

Opaeoe eeo ee e a paeoe, a ooe poxoee. Paeoe O peaeo ee papoe aepaa py epa eo eoo pyypo oxo oxpao ( 3.27), apo o eoo pyypo oxo oxpao. eoe oo aay ye, oa aoe eeo. ooe O peaeo ya peex yo, oe ape ( 3.28). Pye epa peae po, oop peae e eax paoo aepo 2-6. ea pya epaa peae ee opae eeo ( 3.29), opay oo po o 40. ( .., .., .. . 2014; .., .., .. 2016).

, ( ), pop ae - , , - , , . ( . 1998).

oa, oay pyype, opae , ( .., .., .. . 2014; .., .., .. 2016).

a pe aa eye:

aea po ao 36,3 , pae -2+1 oeaa aoa ee poao oo. oe aoe oa 90% o oe aoaa, 1653. ao oe pea eea ea epaa, oopa . Oa a opaoaa 10% H2SO4 ea oy 0,2. aa epaa ee apeaypy A, o oaae epaa oa-epexo. poo ape 200-4000. p oe o eepayp ae 5a aoa apoa a o oee yepa 2 aa. aee epe aepa pepaee apea e papa aopo epa.

Oee xapaepoe oo eex py eaoao o epa peop aepaa poee aoao popao (aa 5.1).

oa pa a paoopa, ao o a eaoaa.

Oo poepaa (10-a-) epoo, eo-epoo eoo eo. e e oeee. ap y, oppopoa, e ee ea.

Oo aa (11-a-) epoo, eo-epoo eoo eo. e e oeee peop epo eo-epo ae. ee paeo opoe peae ape. O axo paeo e pyye o e opoe. ap y, a pax oa ee p e e.

Oo a (12-a-) oe epea pea oo a epoo ea p eo a pax oa.

Oo apoa (12-a-) oe oa pea oo a epoo, eo-epoo eoo eo. ee epa poe peae ape. ap y, a pax oa ee p e e.

o peyaa payoepeoo aaa (. a 5.1) , , , - . , 200-400 .

, - - ( 5.2, 5.3).

(10--) , 4 (Fi-F4) ( 5.1)

(Fi) 40-140 407,02.. 100. .

(F2) 300-560 228,24.. 410. .

(F3) 720-740 2,84.. 730. .

(F4) 780-800 2,7.. 790. .

(Fo6ni) 640,8..

- ( 5.3): - 20, N2; - N2, 02; - N2, 20, 02, 02;

(11--) , 5 (Fi-F5) ( 5.2).

(Fi) 40-60 3,68.. 50. .

(F2) 120-140 0,36.. 130. .

pe e aoee (F3) paoaae eepaypo epae 200-2400 oae 0,39y.e. ay aoee aae p 2200. aa opaa epa.

eep e aoee (F4) paoaae eepaypo epae 360-4400 oae 1,68y.e. ay aoee aae p 4200. aa opaa aepa.

e aoee (F5) paoaae eepaypo epae 480-6600 oae 40,33y.e. ay aoee aae p 5900. aa opaa o epa.

O oe oao (Fo) e epopa oae 46,44y.e.

peyae poee aoo xpoaopa a e oapye epo, eepo o eax aoee, oao a epopae e e. o oop a, o peyae epa aepaa e yo, a e oyae aoap oaa eppoaoo aepaa ay popa. o aa opoo peeo eo, o a paoo eye e ope ya (. a 5.3): N2, CO2.

epopaa a aoaa oe aoapoo pea (12-a-) e ooao, a a ee 5 eo aoee (F1-F5) ( 5.3).

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eoeoea o aex yeox aeo ooeo x poe oo yepa, o oaee y ox eee eaopa ea pypoe oa eo eoeo oo poaeo eo op. o oyaae ooo pooaaoo paopa yeoe ae oeoaoo aaoeoo a ax ypopox o oey a aoee x ea opoa a y. ax aeax a, apep, oa poo pa aae pye ea poepae , a x paee (opoe) a oy ooe eeao poe eopoe oeaeo, pyo ooopyo opa (ooe eopoee, ooopye poe ep-oaoo o p.) (. 3.1).

ax yox aax, eoex oax oeo py pa oeoo peopaoa opaeoo aoo aepaa: oaa (epa, oaa) ea apo y o popa ae yox ao; apae o a, a, ap po eea, aa, e, py, a, a oopeeo apae, oapeae apoaae yeeax opo.

- , , , . , .

a oeeo , aaoe a a ooae .. ay .. pyaoy ( .., .. 1987) y oe pe oe o pooaax poeax yeoopoo a oaex ye x ao po eaoeeo eaa yeox aeo. Peya eoa o epoapoeox oaex ye yeeax opo, poeex opya aep P aae 1990-x ., oaa, o poe yeoopoo a poo pa pyx yox aeax (oa, ya p.), a oe paoe oo pax, o e pyoex eeo (a, oe, opa, , py, ooo) ( .., .., .. 1993). e-eo e eox oooo opaeoo eea ye - yepoa, oopoo ae ooepo yaoe oee oee ooo-pae op axoe yx ox eee eaopa. a aa po x poeo oppoa poooax o yox aax ( .., .., .. . 1994).

oye peapee ae o ooo apaeoo ee exooex o ayooo p oe a x yeoopo aa epoapopaex yox ( .., .., .. . 2004). peya ooe oeeo e oopa, a ae oopo epa .. aoa ( .. 2004).

Paop eoope aee eoeoee ooeo oaa, oyaae pooe pae o a ax ap-yepox eaoao peeax oo aeoo aaoea.

eoeoeo ae oa po e o eeo aoo eaea apoo, aeo ey ex yx paoo eo op. o yx paoo poeae o ep oo -a, aaa, eepee apoooo o epe oo oa, epoo-oey aoey ay aee a aa ( .., .. 2001).

eepoeo ooa poo pao eoao yx paoo a yeee pa op aeoooo eo-aoooo x pa, ao ea o popa oa yox yaeoax aeoox oeoax poo (. -a, ooa a oaa) apaoeoa aoe a oopoaoe ooae aa. ooeeo, o popa oa o e pe oaoaoe, eo epo aao, eaa, aoo aaa, xapaep aa epox o ep, a ae oee oe poe eo-aooo eo oyye poe eaa, epaeea pyoopaoa.

o pa oyoea ea paee aepao e o popa peeax eoo eaea yeox aeo ( y o ypx o apao), paoo aooo oeopaoa, eeaoaoe, a ae eaoeex oae po paoo a (ooo-ox, pyx p.).

a opao, oa o eoeoeoy pey pa e epexo opaoae, aao a oopoo peoaa pa aoeoo poa, a ooo - yaeoao yoo oeoa. oyoe: oeopae apoo eoopoo aao aeoox opo, poe x oooo ppaooo paaea, ee a aae oeeo oa ooy eaop opo, pyo-oeaea, a ooo-oa eaoeea eaa, a ae oee epaox o pyx epyx eopoe, ax o apa, epao popa oe eoopoe opoae oaoe o.

oaa ae ee paoopae yeoe a epaoe poeoe py, ppaoe o oeoo ayepoa, ya eoo-peeo a opo, o ooyo oee e eo ooeo eeye o ooao yo eaa peoao poe poeo a p peo paoax aeoox oaox o ye.

oopa .. aa .. aapoo ( .., .. 2001) oeae, o a aaa oye o, eoeo, y o yx paoo. aao pyype oaa o poe e epao o pyx ex ao o ao aa yx apaex e ep-epex o eo aao, a ae opex poo-o, ao, o paaea aaaa opo. opox ax aaoea o peae epe eoex apye (o-oa, epao, eepo-oe pye pao), eoeo, ex epxe ae. e o oa peoax yx paoo opooa eao pa oo ae oa aax eoeex opo, oop oo e oo o , o y x eee yea. o a eoex eooex eoa, oee o a eppop oaa e ae oepee (yepoae) o oeo opoaeo eox epeex aoa ( .., .. 1990).

yeo oeeo ooao poeo oppoa aaoea oo oy, o y oaa yeeae opo opeeex pyypax o oepa eoopao a p pax P-apaepax. ooy eoxoa paoa opeeex pepe, oox oaoo aeo poe a yo aex yx yeeax opoax aox pyypo-eeex eoxex peopaoa p pax P-apaepax. O eax peyao x poeo e opaoae eoax a ap-yepox eaoao, eeea a oopx ooa a ooe aox pepae epao peeea, opooa ea aoee.